Mental Health and a Slice of Pizza

Mental Health and a Slice of Pizza

I am sure you are wondering what pizza has to do with mental health. It is much more than enjoying a tasty slice or two. A slice of pizza represents a part of a whole and introduces us to the concept of systems theory. The systems concept helps us process a lot of information in a more orderly way, to be able to go back and forth between the whole and its parts, understanding the interaction between the forest and its trees. We can examine the individual trees while at the same time taking in the picture of the entire forest.

One’s mental health represents the forest. The goal of this paper is to better understand the trees, the critical systems that contribute to the whole of our emotional being. We are all aware of the nature versus nurture approach. To what degree can we explain a person’s psychological makeup on genes (nature) or upbringing and life experience (nurture)? I wish it was that simple, just a matter of measuring the degree to which nature and/or nurture matter so we can then direct treatment proportionally to each factor. How does one measure the effect of a problematic childhood or stressful life events? How to quantify the brain-based source of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia? Mental health professionals have some tools to provide these measurements but they are extraordinarily rudimentary. Our technology in not yet at the level to allow for definitive answers. A general systems approach helps us address the biological, psychological and social fields that ultimately contribute to our wellbeing or ill mental health.

The biological field consists of not just our brain but the body systems that ultimately influence brain function such as the cardiovascular, endocrine, pulmonary and gastrointestinal. As an example, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can reduce the availability of oxygen to the brain and consequently alter brain function. A simple experiment decades ago demonstrated that the use of a portable oxygen generator can significantly increase the IQ of a person suffering from COPD. This same individual would subsequently experience less depression and emotional duress. Or the individual on a variety of sedating medications that erroneously creates a clinical picture of memory deficits masquerading as a dementia. Additionally, if one has a medical disorder that will be lifelong, how do we anticipate the psychological toll it will take on the person in the future? Addressing these concerns become an essential part of the treatment team.

The social systems are a bit more difficult to assess due to the subjective nature of data gathering. Family of origin influences are paramount. Negative influences can be mollified by the presence of healthy role models and support systems when young. Interpersonal relations represent an important influence on self concept development. Only recently have we begun to recognize the impact of childhood bullying on the psyche. The goal of a reasonably healthy childhood is to produce a person whose self regard and image is based on their own uniqueness, not necessarily on being good looking, a star athlete, rich of top of their class. This healthy self concept serves as the foundation for the acquisition of future skill, talents and attributes.

To further complicate the impact of social systems on mental health we have to add a time dimension to our study that includes the past, present and the future. A person who comes out of a pathological family of origin can then be exposed to corrective emotional experiences in the present (like good friends and role models) that help dilute the damage already done. Likewise, emerging from a healthy childhood only to be currently traumatized in battle can result in enduring psychological difficulties like post traumatic stress disorder. We must also pay attention to the individual’s expectations of the future. Do they look forward with a cup is half empty approach or with a cup is half full attitude? Are they on a life path that will help ensure future stability (like a career, education, marriage, etc.) or are they proceeding towards the future with limited or confused goals and plans? Or, have they been influenced to pursue a career by their family that they really had no say in and find themselves trapped and helpless? These are several examples of the data that must be gathered by mental health professionals.

Psychological systems are not as easily assessed because they represent concepts that must be deduced and not so easily observed or measured. They include attitudes, belief systems and coping styles. They are the product of one’s journey through childhood and later life representing an ongoing learning process, for good of for bad, a process that can be adaptive or maladaptive for healthy growth. When maladaptive traits are significantly pervasive and persistently interfere with function we raise the clinical possibility of a character or personality disorder. The veracity of this diagnosis is important because treatment of personality disorders can be quite difficult and protracted.

Once we gather systems data it is now necessary to develop a treatment plan. How to determine where to direct treatment? If someone presents with depression, is it adequate to prescribe an antidepressant alone and offer no other treatment recommendations? This is where the systems approach becomes essential. For example, treating the depression alone without attending to address the presence of significant marital discord in an individual with childhood trauma will not result in the desired outcome unless the other areas of dysfunction are addressed. Sometimes it is necessary to create a stepwise approach. Let us assume that the individual with depression is so depressed that full participation in psychotherapy would be unproductive until the depression begins to improve. In this case it would be important to improve the depression with medication before proceeding with psychotherapy.

As I have discussed in past articles it is a challenge to determine if a person’s current symptoms represent a brain-based biological disorder or a reaction to a life situation. We know that all behavior, thought processes and emotional expression emanates from our brains but the difference between a biological disorder and a life reactive state is that the former tends to be long-lasting and persistent while the latter tends to be time-limited. It is important to recognize that there is a middle ground between the biological and the situational states disorders is best described as a hybrid state. The hybrid state occurs when an individual with a biological (possibly genetic) predisposition to depression, anxiety or psychotic disorders interacts with a stressful life situation. The biological predisposition is then activated and resulting in a pathological disorder.

Our pizza pie model of mental healthcare would not be complete without a discussion about the importance of assembling a team of professionals to provide both evaluation and treatment. The ideal team is composed of multidisciplinary licensed mental health professionals with multimodality evaluation and treatment capabilities. The ability to provide a comprehensive psychological test battery, perform a focused psychological trauma assessment or obtain a medical neuropsychiatric evaluation makes it possible to identify which slices of our pizza pie need to be addressed in the treatment plan. Most importantly, the presence of this team under one roof allows for ongoing treatment meetings and consultations among the professionals. Being able to share clinical information in realtime is essential to the management of complex mental health problems. Teamwork also provides mutual support for the clinicians and promotes professional growth.

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What is Self Harm?

Self harm or self-injury is the intentional wounding of one’s own body. Most commonly, a person who self harms will cut themselves with a sharp object.

Self harm can also include:

  • burning or branding (using cigarettes, lit matches or lighters, or other hot objects)
  • severely scratching
  • hair pulling (trichotillomania)
  • biting themselves
  • excessively picking at their skin (dermatillomania) or wounds
  • punching or hitting themselves
  • head banging
  • carving words or patterns into their skin
  • excessive skin-piercing or tattooing, which may also be indicators of self harm

Generally, a person who self-harms does so in private. They often follow a ritual. For example, they may use a favorite object to cut themselves or play certain music while they self injure.

Any area of the body may be targeted, however the arms, legs, or front of the torso are the most commonly selected. These areas are easy to reach and easy to cover up so the person can hide their wounds away from judgmental eyes.

In addition, self harming can also include actions that don’t seem so obvious. Behaviors like binge drinking or excessive substance abuse, having unsafe sex, or driving recklessly can be signs of self harm.

Self Harm Causes

There isn’t a simple answer for what causes people to self-injure. Although this extreme behavior may seem like a suicide attempt on the surface, it’s really an unhealthy coping mechanism.

People cut or hurt themselves to release intolerable mental distress or to distract themselves from painful emotions. Often, the self-mutilator may have difficulty expressing or understanding their emotions. People who self harm report feelings of loneliness or isolation, worthlessness and rejection, self-hatred, guilt, and anger.

When they attack themselves, they are looking for:

  • a sense of control over their feelings, their body, or their lives
  • a physical diversion from emotional pain or emotional “numbness”
  • relief from anxiety and distress
  • punishment of supposed faults

People who self harm often describe an intense yearning to injure themselves. Completing the act of mutilation and feeling the resulting pain releases their distress and anxiety. This is only temporary, however, until their guilt, shame, and emotional pain triggers them to injure themselves again.

Who is At Risk for Self Injury?

Self harm occurs in all walks of life. It is not restricted to a certain age group, nor to a particular race, educational, or socioeconomic background.

It does occur more often in:

  • people with a background of childhood trauma, such as verbal, physical, or sexual abuse
  • those without a strong social support network or, conversely, in those who have friends who self harm
  • those who have difficulty expressing their emotions
  • people who also have eating disorders, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), borderline personality disorder, or those who engage in substance abuse

Although anyone may self harm, the behavior happens most frequently in teens and young adults. Females tend to engage in cutting and other forms of self-mutilation at an earlier age than males, but adolescent boys have the highest incidence of non-suicidal self injury.

Self-Harming Symptoms

Physical signs of self harm may include:

  • unexplained scars, often on wrists, arms, chest, or thighs
  • fresh bruises, scratches or cuts
  • covering up arms or legs with long pants or long-sleeved shirts, even in very hot weather
  • telling others they are clumsy and have frequent “accidents” as a way to explain their injuries
  • keeping sharp objects (knives, razors, needles) either on their person or nearby
  • blood stains on tissues, towels, or bed sheets

Emotional signs of self harm may include:

  • isolation and withdrawal
  • making statements of feeling hopeless, worthless, or helpless
  • impulsivity
  • emotional unpredictability
  • problems with personal relationships

Help for Self Harm

The first step in getting help for self harm is to tell someone that you are injuring yourself. Make sure the person is someone you trust, like a parent, your significant other, or a close friend. If you feel uncomfortable telling someone close to you, seek out a teacher, counselor, religious or spiritual advisor, or a mental health professional.

 Professional treatment for self injury depends on your specific case and whether or not there are any related mental health concerns. For example, if you are self harming but also have depression, the underlying mood disorder will need to be addressed as well.

Most commonly, self harm is treated with a psychotherapy modality, such as:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps you identify negative beliefs and inaccurate thoughts, so you can challenge them and learn to react more positively.
  • Psychodynamic psychotherapy, which helps identify the issues that trigger your self-harming impulses. This therapy will help you develop skills to better manage stress and regulate your emotions.
  • Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), which helps you learn better ways to tolerate distress. You’ll learn coping skills so you can control your urges to self harm.
  • Mindfulness-based therapies, which can help you develop skills to effectively cope with the myriad of issues that cause distress on a regular basis.

Treatment for self injury may include group therapy or family therapy in addition to individual therapy.

 Self care for self-harming includes:

  • Asking for help from someone whom you can call immediately if you feel the need to self injure.
  • Following your treatment plan by keeping your therapy appointments.
  • Taking any prescribed medicines as directed, for underlying mental health conditions.
  • Identifying the feelings or situations that trigger your need to self harm. When you feel an urge, document what happened before it started. What were you doing? Who was with you? What was said? How did you feel? After a while, you’ll see a pattern, which will help you avoid the trigger. This also allows you to make a plan for ways to soothe or distract yourself when it comes up.
  • Being kind to yourself – eat healthy foods, learn relaxation techniques, and become more physically active.
  • Avoiding websites that idealize self harm.

 If your loved one self-injures:

  • Offer support and don’t criticize or judge. Yelling and arguments may increase the risk that they will self harm.
  • Praise their efforts as they work toward healthier emotional expression.
  • Learn more about self-injuring so you can understand the behavior and be compassionate towards your loved one.
  • Know the plan that the person and their therapist made for preventing relapse, then help them follow these coping strategies if they encounter a trigger.
  • Find support for yourself by joining a local or online support group for those affected by self-injuring behaviors.
  • Let the person know they’re not alone and that you care.

Need More Information?

Are you engaging in self harm or is your loved one self injuring? Don’t wait to seek help – speak to one of our caring, compassionate mental health professionals today. Contact the Center for Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Delray Beach, Florida for more information or call us at 561-496-1094.

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Does Breast Cancer Awareness Month Increase Health Anxiety?

It’s October and pink ribbons are popping up everywhere. While this time of year is good for reminding women to do their breast self-exams or get an annual mammogram, it also can be a month of great concern for women who suffer from health anxiety.

The Anxiety and Depression Association of America defines health anxiety as “the misinterpretation of normal bodily sensations as dangerous.” It is the excessive fear of physical illness and women who have the disorder often find it difficult to cope with Breast Cancer Awareness Month. For these women, every new twinge or tiny pain in their breasts likely signals cancer.

People with health anxiety may be so overwhelmed by their fears that they find it hard to live a normal life. They can spend hours online researching a symptom, convinced that a minor symptom is a sign of a serious illness. When October rolls around, the stories of breast cancer survivors may drive a woman with health anxiety to compulsively examine her breasts, positive that every small bump is a tumor just waiting to kill her. Or, she might feel something as innocent as an itch in her breast and suffer severe anxiety because she’s surrounded by breast cancer images on the news and on social media. And, like too many people with health anxiety, she may beg her doctor for unnecessary tests and spend an exorbitant amount of time and money visiting doctors in the quest for a diagnosis that will never come.

What are the Symptoms of Health Anxiety?

Health Anxiety Disorder is also known as hypochondria. Roughly 1-5% of the population suffers from health anxiety. It’s estimated that those with hypochondria use about 10-13 times the health resources that the average person does.

People who suffer from health anxiety:

  • Frequently check their bodies for new pains, blemishes, lumps, or lesions
  • Live in terror that any new physical symptom is a sign of a serious or life-threatening disease
  • Research health problems obsessively
  • Compulsively check their vital signs, take their temperature, or monitor their blood pressure and pulse rate
  • Switch doctors frequently because their current physician can’t find anything wrong with them
  • Either avoid doctors altogether or go to numerous medical consultations
  • May have strained relationships with friends or family
  • Are reluctant to consider that anxiety and other psychosocial factors may be causing their symptoms

Who is at Risk of Developing Health Anxiety?

While there are no easy answers, the people who are most at risk of becoming hypochondriacs tend to be worriers. They may strongly believe that being in good health means you have no physical symptoms or sensations. Frequently, they know someone with a serious disease or they went through a serious illness themselves during their childhood. Additionally, health anxiety can be triggered by the death of a loved one.

Overcoming Health Anxiety

Often, patients with hypochondria are so resistant to the idea of having an anxiety disorder that it may take intervention from their loved ones to help them understand they need treatment.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is very effective for the treatment of health anxiety disorders. This type of therapy focuses on recognizing and understanding the false beliefs, thoughts, and actions that bring on the anxiety. Because people with hypochondria assign meanings to certain symptoms or sensations (“My breast is tender and that definitely means I have breast cancer”), CBT helps patients realize that it isn’t the symptom that causes the anxiety, it’s their reaction to the symptom that does.

By changing their mindset, a person with health anxiety learns to see a worrisome situation in a different way. Cognitive behavioral therapy teaches them how to stop the negative behaviors that reinforce the disorder.

It’s Important to Get Help for Health Anxiety

If you or someone you care about is overly worried about health concerns, it could be caused by health anxiety. Delaying treatment for hypochondria can cause complications such as depression and substance abuse, not to mention financial difficulties due to excessive medical costs or health risks from undergoing unnecessary procedures. Our compassionate mental health professionals are here to help. Contact the Center for Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Delray Beach, Florida for more information or call us today at 561-496-1094.

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On Being A Physician by Dr. Gross

On Being A Physician by Dr. Gross

Looking back on my many years as a physician I thought it appropriate to comment on this profession especially in a time when the core values of physician-hood are being tested.

I truly am grateful and honored to continue to serve as a physician to my patients. Unlike other “jobs”, being a physician is a unique calling. Perhaps the best way for me to share with you the special nature of this profession is by relaying an experience from my first year at medical school at the University of Florida. The Chairman of Medicine, Dr. Lee Cluff facilitated a seminar entitled “What has modern medicine contributed to humankind?” Like good medical students we each chose a topic to present; infectious disease, heart disease, etc. Each week several of us presented an in-depth treatise on our topic that covered all the miraculous advances in medicine that aided our patients. When the last medical student presented their topic Dr. Cluff then proceeded with his contribution. He started by telling us that we were all correct in our summaries as to the contributions of modern medicine while at the same time we were also wrong. He went on to state that what has not changed in over one hundred years has been the role of the physician. Our responsibility is to our patients so that at “the end of the day” they can be assured they have someone to call in their time of need. He was emphasizing the critical importance of the physician-patient relationship; the trust, compassion and honesty of communication that must be developed.

I believe that if one replicated this seminar today focusing on the amazing scientific advances in all of medicine we would still fall back on Dr. Cluff’s core premise underlying the importance of the therapeutic alliance between physician and patient. As physicians we function as healer, friend, confidant and at times wise sage. This is quite a tall order which at times can be demanding. Nevertheless I believe that it is essential component of physician-hood. This brings me to the nature of medicine in this 21st century. The stunning advances in the science of medicine have unfortunately placed an undue focus on the science itself, placing the physician-patient covenant somewhere down the priority list. There are a whole host of factors responsible for this shift including the role that modern health insurance and the managed care industry have relegated physician providers to a subservient role. Health insurance in the previous century reimbursed the individual for covered expenses. The last two decades of that century saw the development of provider physician panels that essentially allowed the insurance companies to gain control of the marketplace. Provider physicians suddenly were faced with reduced controlled fee schedules resulting in higher volumes of patients. This then led to what we witness today, patient volume-related reduction in time spent with each patient. As one would imagine, relationships are based on time and experience and as a consequence the relationships of today's medical practice have suffered.

In Psychiatry, the advent of managed care has relegated the Psychiatrist to physician prescriber while non-psychiatrist provider panels provide the psychotherapy due to insurance cost issues. As I have indicated in the past, Psychiatry is no different from other fields of medicine in that the physician Psychiatrist core role is to be able to provide a diagnostic assessment after a comprehensive examination and data gathering. The treatment plan comes next which may include additional testing, psychotherapy and/or medication. I cannot over emphasize the importance of an evaluation that employs a comprehensive medical (bio-psycho-social) model.

Despite the misgivings outlined, I remain proud of my role a physician Psychiatrist and the honor of providing care to my patients. At the end of the day it is essential for all of us to know there is someone to call in our time of need.

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jBaby – An Educational Program Series from The Jewish Federation of South Palm Beach County

Introducing jBaby, an educational program series from The Jewish Federation of South Palm Beach County. This six part program series for parents focuses on important pre-natal topics presented by local topic experts. See below for the full schedule and be sure to RSVP to this program series here.

6-part program series for parents (pre-natal) – $118

For more information, please call Liana Konhauzer at 561.852.5015 or email lianak@bocafed.org.

October 9, 2018 – What to expect when you are expecting…a Jewish baby!

Moderated panel including the PJ Library Chair, J-screen representative, etc.

October, 30, 2018 – Raising a Jewish baby

What does having a baby mean for your Jewish life? What does your first Shabbat look like? Open discussion.

Presentation by Dr. Leon Weissberg

November 8, 2018 – Health & Wellness Seminar

Presentation by the New Leaf Life

November 28, 2018 – Preparing for Parenthood

Emotional aspects of becoming a family. What does fatherhood and motherhood mean? Navigating the relationship with your grandparents, Intentional parenting, etc.

Presentation by KC Charette, Psy.D

December 12, 2018 – Planning for the future

Planning for your child’s future, wills, trusts, insurance, etc.

December 18, 2018 – Welcome to the community

What does it mean to be a part of the South Palm Beach County Jewish community? Open Q&A.

RSVP for the Educational Program Series »

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Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria: Does it Exist?

workshop on resiliency and overcoming traumaThe American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines a person as having gender dysphoria when they feel strongly that they don’t identify with the biological gender they were born with, when it causes them distress, and when they have felt this way for at least six months. Although children as young as age four may express gender nonconformity, often a person isn’t aware of their gender dysphoria until they reach puberty and recognize they are not comfortable with the new changes going on in their bodies. Because this realization may take their families by surprise, some researchers have been recently exploring a new subset of gender dysphoria called Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria (ROGD). On the surface, ROGD seems to occur very suddenly and without the child having expressed any prior distress with their physical gender.

What is Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria?

The term “Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria” has only sprung up within the past decade or so. ROGD has not been established as a distinct syndrome and this type of dysphoria has only been casually – but not scientifically – observed.

In ROGD, an adolescent or young adult who has seemingly always identified as their physical (birth) gender abruptly starts to identify as another gender. It is important to note that the child would not have met the APA’s criteria for gender dysphoria prior to this, nor would they have shown any discomfort with their birth gender. Moreover, often multiple friends within the child’s same peer group simultaneously begin to identify with another gender and become gender dysphoric around the same time.

Why is ROGD Controversial?

A Brown University researcher recently published a study designed to empirically describe teens and young adults who did not have symptoms of gender dysphoria during childhood but who were observed by their parents to rapidly develop gender dysphoria symptoms over days, weeks or months during or after puberty.” The study author, Lisa Littman, is an assistant professor of the practice of behavioral and social sciences at Brown’s School of Public Health.

For the study, Littman surveyed more than 250 parents who had reported their children developing gender dysphoria within a very short time period. Of these parents, about 45 percent noticed that their child had increased their social media use before announcing their dysphoria. They also told Littman that the child had one or more friends who had become transgender-identified around the same time as their child.

These findings led to Littman’s hypothesis that gender dysphoria could be spread, at least partially, by social contagion. She proposed that a child’s peers, coupled with information obtained from social media, could cause the child to embrace certain beliefs, such as the idea that feeling uneasy with the gender you were born with meant you were gender dysphoric. Because many gender nonconforming teens also push for medical transition to the gender with which they identify, Littman went further and suggested that medical transition could be a harmful coping tool in much the same way that alcohol or substance abuse are negative coping mechanisms.

Her hypotheses set off a firestorm. Transgender advocates aggressively condemned Littman’s study saying, in part, that it was methodologically flawed because Littman only interviewed parents and did not get input from the transgender-identifying children. They also called the study “antitransgender” and a denial of transgender affirmation while citing the fact that a person who is questioning their gender would naturally read up on the subject and communicate with supportive friends who had similar thoughts and feelings. Advocates also pointed out that a true gender dysphoria diagnosis requires evaluation by specialists, but the Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria study only required the parent’s perspective.

As a result of the criticism, Brown University withdrew their press release about the study. They also released a statement explaining their decision to conduct a post-publication re-review of Littman’s Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria study. They worried that the study “could be used to discredit efforts to support transgender youth and invalidate the perspectives of members of the transgender community.”

Gender Dysphoria Treatment

We know that gender dysphoria exists, but clearly more research is needed in order to settle the question of whether Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria is real.

For those with gender dysphoria, early diagnosis, gender-affirming approaches by parents and family, as well as individual and family counseling can help the transgender person and their loved ones deal with the emotional challenges of gender transition.

Often, transgender people take some type of action to outwardly embrace the person they feel they are. They may change their name to one more aligned with the gender they express or may dress as that gender. Other options may include taking puberty blockers, hormones to develop the physical traits of the gender they identify with, or completing sex-reassignment surgery.

We know that people with gender dysphoria have higher rates of mental health conditions like depersonalization disorder, anxiety, depression and mood disorders, and suffer from an increased rate of substance abuse. They also have higher suicide rates, therefore it is important for them to seek mental health treatment. The objective of this treatment is not to change the person’s feelings about their gender, rather it is to give them a way to deal with the emotional issues that come with their gender dysphoria.

Get Answers about Gender Dysphoria and Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria

If you or a loved one are distressed, anxious, or depressed about your gender identity or worried about ROGD, we can help. Contact the Center for Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Delray Beach, Florida for more information or call us today at 561-496-1094.

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Can Virtual Reality Therapy Treat Eating Disorders?

Can Virtual Reality Therapy Treat Eating Disorders?

Eating disorders affect a person’s physical and psychological functioning differently than any other mental health disorder. Once thought to be a problem of the wealthy, eating disorders are now known to impact various cultures, socioeconomic statuses, ages, and genders, and can be found worldwide.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) characterizes people with eating disorders as having “pathological eating habits and a tendency to overestimate their weight and body shape.” Eating disorders are not to be taken lightly: patients with an eating disorder faces a high risk of medical and psychological effects, along with the possibility of death if their condition becomes severe enough.

Eating disorders are also more common than you might think. In fact, a 2007 survey by Hudson, et al., noted that about 1.5% of American women (0.5% of men) experience bulimia nervosa, about 0.9% of women (0.3% of men) have been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, and roughly 3.5% of women (2% of men) struggle with binge eating disorder.

Until recently, eating disorders have been treated mainly through cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). New advances in the emerging field of virtual reality therapy (VRT), however, are being combined with traditional therapy and show promise for more effective treatment.

How Does VRT Work?

Virtual reality therapy is a high tech approach to helping people learn effective ways to cope with the fearful situations they dread. During VRT, you wear a virtual reality headset that looks similar to the type you’d use when playing video games. The therapist plays a simulation program that displays avatars in a variety of anxiety-provoking settings, such as in a restaurant or a store dressing room for those with an eating disorder. These settings are low stress to begin with, then stress levels are increased as you become more desensitized to the worrisome scenario.

You use a virtual “body” during VRT. Although this avatar isn’t really “you”, studies show that people feel a close enough association to the avatar that they emotionally respond as if they were in the actual setting. In this way, they can address their eating disorder and work through their body-image issues in a safe, controlled environment. The psychologist listens in during the session to coach, help with relaxation techniques and provide coping skills. They also can control the environment and either stop the program or lower the stress level if you become too upset.

How Effective is VRT for Eating Disorders?

Virtual reality exposure therapy gives people an experience that is just real enough to trigger an emotional response to their eating disorder, but is it effective?

In 2017, DeCarvalho, et. al., did a systematic review of several studies that used virtual reality therapy for binge eating and bulimia nervosa (BN) treatment. One of the studies they analyzed was done by Perpina, et. al., and focused on treatment with a combination of VRT and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus treatment with CBT alone. The study found that the “VR treatment group showed more BI [body image] improvement than CBT and greater improvement in the behavior clinical measures. At post-treatment, the VR group improved on body attitudes, frequency of negative automatic thoughts on BI, body satisfaction, discomfort caused by body-related situations and BN symptoms (measured by Bulimic Investigatory Test; BITE). These results were maintained or continued to improve (body attitudes, frequency of negative automatic thoughts on BI) at one-year follow-up.” All participants improved in the eating disorders measures and it was also maintained at follow-up.

In a different study, a body-swapping illusion was used in conjunction with virtual reality. Women with body image anxiety were asked to estimate their own body size before participating in two different body-swapping scenarios. In both illusions, the women were shown a virtual image of themselves with skinny stomachs.

The theory was that it may be possible to modify a person’s allocentric memory (a type of spatial memory in which the person mentally manipulates objects from a stationary point of view) for the positive. Indeed, after going through the virtual scenarios, the women in the study reported a decreased estimated body measurement and assessed their body size more accurately than before participating in the illusion.

Get Help for Eating Disorders

Eating disorders impact a person’s biological and psychological functioning in ways unlike other mental health disorders. If you are struggling, we can help through both traditional and virtual reality therapies. Talk to the mental health professionals at The Center for Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Delray Beach, Florida today. For more information, contact us or call us today at 561-496-1094.

Reference:

Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG, Kessler RC. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Feb 01;61(3):348–58. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.040. http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/16815322. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

De Carvalho, M. R., Dias, T. R. de S., Duchesne, M., Nardi, A. E., & Appolinario, J. C. (2017). Virtual Reality as a Promising Strategy in the Assessment and Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: A Systematic Review. Behavioral Sciences, 7(3), 43. http://doi.org/10.3390/bs7030043

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Midlife Anxiety

Patient in need of In Vivo Exposure Therapy.A 2014 study by the British government found that while most people of all age levels are generally content with their lives, those in the middle age years – between the ages of 45 and 59 – are the least happy. These respondents reported low ratings of overall happiness and life satisfaction and a sharp increase in midlife anxiety. Interestingly, even adults aged 90 and older reported being happier and more satisfied than the middle aged group.

What Causes Anxiety in Middle Age?

The U. K. study, done by the Office of National Statistics, analyzed data from more than 300,000 respondents during a three-year period from 2012 to 2015. It generated average scores for specific areas including happiness, life satisfaction, anxiety, and the feelings of being worthwhile. The scores showed that anxiety levels were highest for people between the ages of 40 and 60. The peak anxiety levels were noted in those in the 50 – 54 age group.

Many things can cause midlife anxiety, ranging from underlying health problems to financial concerns. In women, even the fluctuating hormones of menopause and perimenopause can change the chemistry in their brain and bring on anxiety and panic attacks.

For men, while many are aware that anxiety disorders exist, very few realize how often anxiety affects them. Men often refuse to admit to themselves or others that they might have a mental health issue and may seek out unhealthy ways to cope (example: alcohol use) rather than admit to the concern.

There is no one specific trigger that causes midlife anxiety. Instead, people who experience anxiety in middle age are often burdened with simultaneous stressors that other generations aren’t facing: the raising of children, while at the same time trying to hold down jobs and care for elderly parents. Top this off with the financial pressures of putting children through college, empty nest syndrome, and facing worries of possibly not having saved enough for a retirement that is drawing ever closer, and stress rises even higher.

Midlife Anxiety Treatment

Self-help:

One of the best ways to manage anxiety is to reduce your stress. There are several things you can do to accomplish this and a side benefit is that they are also good for your overall health:

  • Get daily exercise. The newest research recommends that we all do some type of aerobic exercise at least 30 minutes a day, a total of 5 days per week. Regular physical exercise causes the brain to release serotonin, the “feel-good” neurotransmitter. Serotonin helps to reduce stress, improve your mood, and gives you more energy. Low-impact exercise, such as swimming, yoga or walking are great examples of workouts that will help raise your serotonin levels.
  • Make time for relaxation. When your days are filled with rush, rush, rush – getting the kids to school, getting yourself to work, finishing projects, taking the kids to after-school activities – relaxation time can be hard to come by. Yet, relaxing is crucial to reducing anxiety and stress levels. Try to set aside time every day, just for yourself. Relaxation can come from simple activities that you look forward to, such as soaking in a warm bath at the end of your day or taking a few minutes to read, meditate or listen to some soothing music.
  • Silence your phone and put away your laptop or tablet (or at least turn off all but the most important alerts). Limit your use of social media and reduce the amount of time you spend reading the news. We’re so used to having our electronics with us at all times, but getting constant notifications and reading endless news reports about crime, wars, and world problems can keep you from truly relaxing. Give yourself an electronic break every day.
  • Visualize yourself in a peaceful setting. Your brain can’t distinguish between a real setting and one you visualize, so reduce your stress by imagining yourself on a tranquil beach or in a beautiful forest. Smell the salt air at the beach or the pine trees in the woods, imagine the sound of the waves on the sand or the birds singing in the forest. Being as specific as you can and really trying to imagine all the aspects of the setting can take you away from your stressors and help you unwind.

Professional help:

When you have anxiety, it’s easy to become overwhelmed by your emotions. When that happens, people tend to react to certain aspects of their lives in a more negative way. It is common to begin to avoid the situations or experience that make you anxious, but that avoidance can actually increase anxiety.

If self-help to reduce your midlife anxiety isn’t working any longer, consider seeing a mental health professional, particularly if your anxiety is causing you extreme distress or disrupting your daily life. Anxiety is treatable and the majority of people who seek help are able to improve, reduce or eliminate their anxiety symptoms after working with a psychologist to address their own, specific concerns.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy that is very effective for treating anxiety in middle age. CBT helps you understand how your own negative thoughts contribute to your anxiety symptoms. By learning to recognize these negative thought patterns, you can change them, which allows you to manage your symptoms. Additionally, cognitive behavioral therapy teaches you skills and techniques for coping with your midlife anxiety.

CBT is often used in conjunction with exposure therapy. Exposure therapy allows you to gradually confront your fears in a safe environment and in a way that gives you control. When you face your fears without harm, you reduce your anxiety by learning that the outcome you feared is unlikely to happen.

Get Help for Midlife Anxiety

If you’re feeling overwhelmed and facing midlife anxiety, we can help. Talk to the mental health professionals at The Center for Treatment of Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Delray Beach, Florida today. For more information, contact us or call us today at 561-496-1094.

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